Showing posts with label speaking. Show all posts
Showing posts with label speaking. Show all posts

Wednesday, 22 May 2013

Writing about ‘represented speech’ in Shakespeare

In the exam you are typically provided with a short extract from one of Shakespeare plays. This blog provides a checklist of the key points that you will need to write about. This exercise is an opportunity to show off your understanding and your critical vocabulary, and to demonstrate your awareness of how literary and rhetorical techniques contribute to effective dramatic writing.

Finding your bearings

Keywords: conflict, drama, character, theme

Who are the main protagonists, and who are the subsidiary speakers? Which characters prompt or lead the discussion? Who dominates?

Think about

the context for the action,
the sense of conflict or rapport and dramatic situation
how the extract helps to develop a character/psychology/motivation/emotion
... or to advance a theme.

Think about what has happened before, and what will happen after the selected scene/extract

Is there an emotional high point or specific dramatic moments that have more emphasis than others? Identify precisely where these happen in the extract, and think about how they are achieved.

Are there transitions between different emotions? (Anger, Greed, Confused, Joy, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Hate, Desire, Hope, Dejection, Love, Wonder, Irritation, Pride, Disappointment, Happiness, Embarrassed, Anxiety, Jealous, Glee)

Are the speakers balanced in equal exchanges? Are they engaged in verbal combat, or witty wordplay (puns/innuendo/logical games)

Is there a power difference between speakers (age/class/gender/situation)

Check for dramatic irony in relation to characters and the audience.

Speaking Voices

Shakespeare’s plays are not a transcript of conversational speech, but they may employ colloquial elements and slang, sexual jokes, rudeness and less formal, less poetic speech rhythms. Sometimes he employs prose, or irregular verse. You should comment on these aspects of the extract.

Sounds - Beat and Rhythm

The usual pattern is iambic pentameter – a 10 syllable line, five feet, with alternating unstressed (-) and stressed (/) beats ( -  / )


Shakespeare tends to employ unrhymed verse, but sometime the final two lines of a scene are a rhyming couplet. This provides a more emphatic closure.


How does Shakespeare vary the pace? Look for shifts in rhythm and timing, and don’t just pause at the end of very line. Shakespeare’s verse is very flexible, and presents many cues for actors, as well as opportunities for variations in volume, pitch and pace.

Look out for short, transactional exchanges, and phatics (polite introductions/ salutations), interruptions, overlapping

Contrast these to more rhetorical speeches that outline and develop thoughts and feelings, often using longer more complex sentence structures.

Look for evidence of rhetorical techniques (such as repetition, tripling, parallelism, listing, pronoun shifts [ I/we/you/they/he/she/it ], contrast and antithesis)

and figurative language (simile/ metaphor/ personification/ pathetic fallacy)

Pitch and Volume

Is there a sense of rising or falling (e.g. louder/quieter)
Dramatic elements: e.g. trumpets announce a character ... or whispering ...

Compare and contrast public speeches, court and noisy crowd/street scenes to ...
smaller, more intimate gatherings (a bedroom scene), a private monologue (soliloquy), or an ‘aside’

Renaissance and Rhetoric

Because renaissance writers were trained in the classical rhetoric you will find many of the literary devices and rhetorical techniques which are frequent in formal public speeches.

This artificial formality (prepared speech) many contribute to a sense of linguistic performance and dexterity (verbal skills). Polished and eloquent speech was the sign of an educated gentleman or a courtier.

The deployment of rhetoric provides a sense of wit, intelligence and refinement, but it was also used to present deeper thoughts and feelings of the character.

Language and style should be related to issues of power, but remember that Shakespeare can be quite effective and dramatic in the way that he satirises and mocks the powerful, and the way that he gives a voice to women, the poor, and the outsider.

Shakespeare’s audience delighted in the playfulness, mobility and resourcefulness of language.

Rather than just identifying and naming a rhetorical or literary technique explain how it functions to produce emphasis, more vivid pictures or imagery, or amplifies, deepens and develops an idea. Evaluate its impact and effectiveness.

Dr Ian McCormick is the author of The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences
(Quibble Academic, 2013)

Sunday, 3 February 2013

63 Tips for More Effective Memory and Recall of Quotations, Texts and Speeches

As a tutor I am often asked to help students who are having trouble with their recall of texts and quotations.

But before I outline my 63 memory-recall tips, it is worth observing that many public speakers avoid trying to memorize speeches with word-perfect duplication of the original.

Spontaneity and improvisation in speech making is far more natural and attractive than stressing-out over perfect recall.

Momentary silences focus attention and create a sense of and sincerity, which may draw more applause than a speech that sounds arrogant and excessively confident. We want pathos not parrots.

In fact, some audiences will be turned off by an artificially memorised speech that sounds like a robot in replay mode.


But if you are learning a classic text, such as a speech from Shakespeare, you will need to aim for highly accurate recall, as the audience will spot errors, and mistakes may also upset the delightful rhythm of the poetry.

Effective memory and recall involves far more that repeated re-readings of the words on the page:

Rote learning is dull; creative memory is fun.

Effective Memory Skills depend on factors such as the use of structure, selection, visualisation, comprehension, cue association, emotional impact, repetition, speaking and listening, sequence, context, and unstressed learning and recall.

Here are my Top Tips for Success ...


1. Start by rewiring your brain to this script “I AM ENJOYING MYSELF”,




2. Everyone finds memory work difficult. It is a complex process and it requires patience.

3. Gaps between learning episodes are gradually increased as the memorized items shift from being short term to finding an anchor in the long term memory (LTM)

4. Success needs to be paced in small steps, not giant leaps.

5. You will need to take short rests in-between your 20 minute learning sessions.

6. Also ensure that you take longer breaks after 2 hours of work.

7. Avoid distractions that would affect your concentration

8. Actively remove any temptations away from your work


9. Generally, 6-8 hours of work over a 16 hour period is more than enough. You need to be realistic about work input and recall outputs

10. Sleep is essential for memories to become rooted in the LTM.

11. If you are tired, learning will be very slow

12. If you are very hungry, or bloated with excess food, the effectiveness of your learning will be reduced.

13. Also avoid alcohol and excessive stimulants such as caffeine.

14. General physical and mental fitness also support learning.


15. Design a reward system as you complete different success stages in your memory-recall work. This builds motivation.


16. Divide your speech into 3-7 short sections or paragraphs

17. Design a structured workplan for learning based on this document and tailored realistically to your needs and character.

18. At this stage some people like to use a flowchart or diagram for the speech as whole.

19. Choose an appropriate colour scheme for each section

20. Select a key word for each section, and memorize the main sequence.

21. Choose a memorable image that links with the key word. Ideally this will be quite vivid or even humorous in order to create a strong link.


22. Select a key word from each sentence.

23. Choose a memorable image that links with the key word

24. These are the foundation building blocks for memory


25. Your speech text should be well-spaced with LARGE capitals for the most significant words.

26. Use colour highlights

27. Use single and double underlining if necessary.

28. But don’t make your system of visual cues too complicated


29. The words on the page must become a core part of your emotional and intellectual being.

30. This means that the words must make sense and feel right to you. Identification is essential. Become what you want to recall.

31. It’s very hard to remember what we don’t understand or relate to.


32. Some memory techniques employ the notion that your key words should be linked, logically, absurdly, or by mnemonic devices.

33. Kinetic memory: this is rather like encountering Word Objects in the course of an imaginary journey/ walk.


34. Learn one section or sequence at a time. This approach avoids the sense of overload, panic and helplessness.


35. Some people try to learn each section in a different part of the house, garden, or in the car, or the garage.

36. Or try learning a section in an odd space, such as underneath a table, in the bath, or by candlelight, or looking into a cracked mirror!

37. Sometimes it helps to have a specific odour associated with each section. Try lavender or mint, or perfume, or aftershave.

38. These contextual clues support vivid encodement and quick recall. The sense of smell activates the oldest parts of the brain, and it’s a highly underestimated technique.


39. Gradually repeat your chosen sentence with longer gaps between reading/speaking and the act of attempted recall.

40. Initially try intervals such as 1 minutes, 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours.

41. Sleep also helps to fix memories in the brain. That’s why staying up all night before an exam is counter-productive.


42. If you get stuck try to use your intellectual and emotional understanding of the words in order to finish the sentence.

43. Unless you are memorizing a classic text you do not need to be word perfect every time.


44. If you get stuck during the performance, improvise. This is the mark of a great artist: spontaneous creativity!


45. Act out your speech as you learn it.

46. At first use melodrama and exaggerated gestures in order to make the experience more vivid

47. Method acting: think and feel your way into your character


48. Try associating music or other sound cues with your sections, sequences, sentences or words

49. Speaking the words is often far more effective than simply reading them silently.

50. Try recording and playback of your voice, or someone else’s

51. Experiment with serious or funny voices

52. Imagine your favourite actor reciting the speech

53. Experiment with very slow and fast pace in your recitation

54. Listen to the natural rhythm, rhyme, metre, and punctuation

55. Pay attention to assonance and alliteration as sound clues


56. Work with friends or family to support your learning

57. Establish a small study group

58. Quiz and test each other


59. Stress is natural in some degree on the day of your performance.

60. But stress may block effective recall when it turns to anxiety and panic.

61. Practise breathing exercises and meditation in order to reduce anxiety.

62. On the day, again, rewire your brain POSITIVE ACTION MODE to






63. Rote learning is dull; creative memory is fun.

Dr Ian McCormick is the author of The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences
(Quibble Academic, 2013)
Further Reading

For and Against Memorizing Poetry  Here.

"Many people in Great Britain and the United States can recall elderly relatives who remembered long stretches of verse learned at school decades earlier, yet most of us were never required to recite in class. Heart Beats is the first book to examine how poetry recitation came to assume a central place in past curricular programs, and to investigate when and why the once-mandatory exercise declined. Telling the story of a lost pedagogical practice and its wide-ranging effects on two sides of the Atlantic, Catherine Robson explores how recitation altered the ordinary people who committed poems to heart, and changed the worlds in which they lived. Heart Beats begins by investigating recitation's progress within British and American public educational systems over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and weighs the factors that influenced which poems were most frequently assigned. Robson then scrutinizes the recitational fortunes of three short works that were once classroom classics: Felicia Hemans's "Casabianca," Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard," and Charles Wolfe's "Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna." To conclude, the book considers W. E. Henley's "Invictus" and Rudyard Kipling's "If--," asking why the idea of the memorized poem arouses such different responses in the United States and Great Britain today. Focusing on vital connections between poems, individuals, and their communities, Heart Beats is an important study of the history and power of memorized poetry." See Heart Beats: Everyday Life and the Memorized Poem by Catherine Robson (Princeton University Press 2012)

"What has happened to the lost art of memorising poetry? Why do we no longer feel that it is necessary to know the most enduring, beautiful poems in the English language 'by heart'? In his introduction Ted Hughes explains how we can overcome the problem by using a memory system that becomes easier the more frequently it is practised. The collected 101 poems are both personal favourites and particularly well-suited to the method Hughes demonstrates. Spanning four centuries, ranging from Shakespeare and Keats through to Auden and Heaney, By Heart offers the reader a 'mental gymnasium' in which the memory can be exercised and trained in the most pleasurable way. Some poems will be more of a challenge than others, but all will be treasured once they have become part of the memory bank." By Heart, By Ted Hughes (Faber 2012)

"The ancient Greeks, to whom a trained memory was of vital importance - as it was to everyone before the invention of printing - created an elaborate memory system, based on a technique of impressing 'places' and 'images' on the mind. Inherited and recorded by the Romans, this art of memory passed into the European tradition, to be revived, in occult form, at the Renaissance, and particularly by the strange and remarkable genius, Giordano Bruno. Such is the main theme of Frances Yates's unique and brilliant book, in the course of which she sheds light on such diverse subjects as Dante's Divine Comedy, the form of the Shakespearian theatre and the history of ancient architecture. Aside from its intrinsic fascination, The Art of Memory is an invaluable contribution to aesthetics and psychology, and to the history of philosophy, of science and of literature." The Art Of Memory, by Frances A Yates (Pimlico, 1992)

"Mary Carruthers's classic study of the training and uses of memory for a variety of purposes in European cultures during the Middle Ages has fundamentally changed the way scholars understand medieval culture. This fully revised and updated second edition considers afresh all the material and conclusions of the first. While responding to new directions in research inspired by the original, this new edition devotes much more attention to the role of trained memory in composition, whether of literature, music, architecture, or manuscript books. The new edition will reignite the debate on memory in medieval studies and, like the first, will be essential reading for scholars of history, music, the arts and literature, as well as those interested in issues of orality and literacy (anthropology), in the working and design of memory (both neuropsychology and artificial memory), and in the disciplines of meditation (religion)."  The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature) by Mary Carruthers

Dr Ian McCormick is the author of The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences
(Quibble Academic, 2013)