Showing posts with label IELTS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IELTS. Show all posts

Tuesday, 10 February 2015

List of frequently used academic words







Have you heard of corpus linguistics

Corpus linguistics proposes that reliable language analysis is more feasible with corpora (samples) collected in the field, in their natural contexts, and with minimal experimental-interference.

How did it all start?


A landmark in modern corpus linguistics was Henry Kučera and W. Nelson Francis's Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English (1967).

This work was based on the analysis of the Brown Corpus, a carefully compiled selection of about a million words, drawn from a wide variety of sources in current  American English

How did technology help?

The first computerized corpus of one million words of transcribed spoken language was constructed in 1971 by the Montreal French Project. This effort inspired Shana Poplack's much larger corpus of spoken French in the Ottawa-Hull area

The analysis of academic writing shows that there are many 

frequently used words and phrases:

a form of   

a function of   

a high degree   

a large number   

a large number of   

a list of   

a number of   

a result of   

a series of   

a set of   

a small number   

a variety of   

a wide range   

a wide range of   

according to the   

allows us to   

an attempt to   

an example of   

an increase in the   

and so on   

and the same   

and the second   

appear to be    

appears to be   

are a number of   

are able to   

are as follows   

are based on   

are likely to   

as a consequence   

as a function   

as a function of   

as a result   

as a result of   

as a result of the   

as a whole   

as an example   

as can be seen   

as opposed to   

as part of   

as part of the   

as shown in   

as well as   

associated with the   

assume that the    

assumed to be   

at least in   

at the outset   

at the same    

at the same time   

at the time of   

at this stage 

   


based on a   

based on the   

be achieved by   

be argued that   

be carried out   

be considered as   

be explained by   

be noted that    

be regarded as   

be related to the   

be seen as   

be the case   

be used as a   

be used to   

because it is   

been carried out   

been shown to   

between the two   

both of these   

but this is   

by virtue of   

FREE BOOK AVAILABLE ONLINE: 

Statistics in Linguistics

Christopher Butler

http://www.uwe.ac.uk/hlss/llas/statistics-in-linguistics/bkindex.shtml













can also be   

can be achieved   

can be considered   

can be expressed   

can be found   

can be found in   

can be seen   

can be seen in   

can be used   

can be used to   

can easily be   

carried out by   

carried out in   

could be used   

degree to which   

depend on the   

depending on the   

depends on the   

difference between the   

different from the   

different types of   

does not appear   

due to the   

due to the fact   

due to the fact that   

each of the   

each of these   

even though the   

exactly the same   

example of a   

extent to which   

fact that the   

factors such as   

focus on the   

for example if   

for example in   

for example the   

for the purposes of   

for this purpose   

for this reason   

form of the   

from the point   

from the point of   

from the point of view   

function of the   

give rise to    


An enquiry into the role of satire and sense in academic life today:

The Graves of Academe

Would you recommend this book?



















has also been   

has been used   

have shown that   

have the same   

high levels of   

his or her   

if they are   

if this is   

important role in   

in a number of   

in accordance with   

in accordance with the   

in both cases   

in conjunction with   

in more detail   

in most cases   

in order to   

in other words   

in other words the   

in relation to   

in response to   

in some cases   

in such a   

in such a way   

in such a way that   

in table    

in terms of   

in terms of a   

in terms of the   

in the absence of   

in the case   

in the case of   

in the context   

in the context of   

in the course of   

in the form of   

in the next section   

in the present study   

in the same   

in the sense   

in the sense that   

in this article   

in this case   

in this case the   

in this paper   

in this paper we   

in this way   

insight into the   

is affected by   

is based on   

is based on the   

is consistent with   

is determined by   

is likely to   

is likely to be   

is more likely   

is much more   

is not possible to   

is the case   

it appears that   

it follows that   

it is clear   

it is clear that   

it is difficult   

it is important   

it is important to   

it is impossible   

it is impossible to   

it is interesting   

it is interesting to   

it is likely that   

it is necessary   

it is necessary to   

it is not possible   

it is not possible to   

it is obvious that   

it is possible   

it is possible that   

it is possible to   

it is worth   

it may be   

it should be noted   

large number of   

less likely to   

likely to be   

little or no   

means that the   

more likely to   

most likely to   

nature of the   

need not be   

needs to be    

none of these   

of the fact   

of the same   

of the second   

of the system   

of the two    

of these two   

of view of   

on the basis   

on the basis of   

on the basis of the   

on the other   

on the other hand   

on the other hand the   

on the part of   

other words the   

out that the   

over a period   

over a period of   

part of a   

part of the   

parts of the   

point of view   

point of view of   

referred to as   

related to the   

same way as   

see for example   

should also be   

should be noted   

should not be   

shown in figure   

shown in table   

similar to those   

size of the   

small number of   

so that the   

such a way   

such a way that   

such as the   

such as those   

take into account   

take into account the   

terms of the   

the ability to   

the amount of   

the area of   

the basis of   

the case of   

the change in   

the concept of   

the context of   

the definition of   

the development of   

the difference between   

the difference between the   

the distribution of   

the effect of   

the effects of   

the example of   

the existence of   

the extent to which   

the fact that   

the fact that the    

the first is   

the form of   

the frequency of   

the idea that   

the importance of   

the issue of   

the level of   

the meaning of   

the most important   

the nature of   

the nature of the   

the next section   

the notion of   

the number of   

the order of   

the other hand   

the other hand the   

the part of the   

the point of view   

the point of view of   

the presence of   

the presence of a   

the problem of   

the process of   

the purpose of this   

the question of   

the rate of   

the real world   

the reason for   

the relationship between   

the result of   

the role of   

the same as   

the same time   

the same way as   

the size of   

the size of the   

the structure of   

the study of   

the sum of   

the total number   

the use of   

the validity of the   

the value of   

the way in   

the way in which   

the way that   

the work of   

their ability to   

there are a number   

there are a number of   

there are no   

there are several   

there are three   

this means that   

this paper we   

this type of   

this would be   

to carry out   

to determine whether   

to distinguish between   

to do so   

to ensure that   

to ensure that the   

to show that   

to some extent   

to the fact that   

to use the   

total number of   

two types of   

value of the   

view of the   

was based on   

was carried out   

way in which   

ways in which   

we assume that   

we can see   

we do not   

we have seen   

what are the   

whether or not   

whether or not the   

which can be   

which is not   

which is the   

wide range of   

with regard to   

with respect to   

with respect to the   

with the same    

Friday, 21 February 2014

Sentence Connection and Transition: a bibliography





Today I am sharing the FURTHER READING list published in my book The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences (Quibble Academic 2013):

Amidon, Arlene. "Children's understanding of sentences with contingent relations: Why are temporal and conditional connectives so difficult?" Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 22.3 (1976): 423-437.

Astington, Janet Wilde, Janette Pelletier, and Bruce Homer. "Theory of mind and epistemological development: The relation between children's second-order false-belief understanding and their ability to reason about evidence." New Ideas in Psychology 20.2 (2002): 131-144.

Bakewell, Sarah. How to Live: A Life of Montaigne in one question and twenty attempts at an answer. Vintage, 2011.

Baker, Linda. "Comprehension monitoring: Identifying and coping with text confusions." Journal of Literacy Research 11.4 (1979): 365-374.

Bates, Elisabeth, Philip S. Dale, and Donna Thal. "Individual differences and their implications for theories of language development." The Handbook of Child Language (1995): 96-151.

Beilin, Harry, and Barbara Lust. "A study of the development of logical and linguistics connectives: Linguistics data." Studies in the cognitive basis of language development (1975): 76-120.

Bizzell, Patricia, and Bruce Herzberg, eds., The rhetorical tradition: Readings from classical times to the present. Boston, MA: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1990.

Bloom, Lois, et al. "Complex sentences: Acquisition of syntactic connectives and the semantic relations they encode." Journal of child language 7.02 (1980): 235-261.

Bloom, Lois. Language development from two to three. Cambridge University Press, (1993).

Bondi, Marina. "Connectives." The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics.

Braine, Martin, and Barbara Rumain. "Logical reasoning." Handbook of child psychology 3 (1983): 263-340.

Braunwald, Susan R. "The development of connectives." Journal of pragmatics 9.4 (1985): 513-525.

Braunwald, Susan R. "The development of because and so: Connecting language, thought, and social understanding." Studies in the production and comprehension of text, Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc (1997): 121-137.

Brostoff, Anita. "Coherence:" Next to" Is Not" Connected to"." College composition and communication 32.3 (1981): 278-294.

Byrnes, James P., and Willis F. Overton. "Reasoning about logical connectives: A developmental analysis." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 46.2 (1988): 194-218.

Clancy, Patricia, T. Iacobsen, and Marilyn Silva. The Acquisition of Conjunction: A Cross-Linguistic Study. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development. ERIC Clearinghouse, 1976.

Clark, Eve V. First language acquisition. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Crewe, William J. "The illogic of logical connectives." ELT journal 44.4 (1990): 316-325.

Crowhurst, Marion. "Cohesion in argument and narration at three grade levels." Research in the Teaching of English (1987): 185-201.

Crusius, Timothy W., and Carolyn E. Channell. The aims of argument: A rhetoric and reader. Mayfield Publishing Company, 1998.

Cudd, Evelyn T., and Leslie Roberts. "Using writing to enhance content area learning in the primary grades." The Reading Teacher 42.6 (1989): 392-404.

Davies, Peter, Becky Shanks, and Karen Davies. "Improving narrative skills in young children with delayed language development." Educational Review 56.3 (2004): 271-286.

Degand, Liesbeth, Nathalie Lefèvre, and Yves Bestgen. "The impact of connectives and anaphoric expressions on expository discourse comprehension." Document Design 1.1 (1999): 39-51.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. Capitalisme et schizophrénie. Vol. 1. Les Editions de minuit, 1972.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. Anti-oedipus. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. A thousand plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Derrida, Jacques. Dissemination. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

Dickens ,Charles. A Tale of Two Cities (1859).



Doyle, Walter, and Kathy Carter. "Academic tasks in classrooms." Curriculum Inquiry 14.2 (1984): 129-149.

Dubin, Fraida, and Elite Olshtain. "The interface of writing and reading." TESOL Quarterly (1980): 353-363.

Emerson, Harriet F., and William L. Gekoski. "Development of comprehension of sentences with “because” or “if”." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 29.2 (1980): 202-224.

Fahnestock, Jeanne. "Semantic and lexical coherence." College composition and communication 34.4 (1983): 400-416.

Falmagne, Rachel J. "Language and the acquisition of logical knowledge." Reasoning, necessity, and logic: Developmental perspectives (1990): 111-131.

Forster, E.M. Howards End. 1910.

Freedman, Sarah W. "How characteristics of student essays influence teachers' evaluations." Journal of Educational Psychology 71.3 (1979): 328.

Gajdusek, Linda. "Toward wider use of literature in ESL: Why and how." Tesol Quarterly 22.2 (1988): 227-257.

Gardner, P. L. "The identification of specific difficulties with logical connectives in science among secondary school students." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 17.3 (1980): 223-229.

Gillet, Andy, Angela Hammond and Mary Martala, Successful Academic Writing, Pearson Education, 2009.

Goldman, Susan R., and John D. Murray. "Knowledge of connectors as cohesion devices in text: A comparative study of native-English and English-as-a-second-language speakers." Journal of Educational Psychology 84.4 (1992): 504.

Griffiths, Toni, and David Guile. "A connective model of learning: the implications for work process knowledge." European educational research journal 2.1 (2003): 56-73.

Grout, Edward H., Standard English: Structure and Style. Pitman, 1933.

Hamilton, William, Lectures on Metaphysics. 2 vols, 1860.

Hatch, Evelyn. "The young child's comprehension of time connectives." Child Development (1971): 2111-2113.

Hazlitt, William. ‘Essay On Good Nature.’ 1816.

Hobbes, Thomas. The Elements of Law Natural and Politic. 1640.

Hood, Lois, Lois Bloom, and Charles J. Brainerd. "What, when, and how about why: A longitudinal study of early expressions of causality." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (1979): 1-47.

Horn, Vivian. "One Way to Read a Paragraph." Elementary English 50.6 (1973): 871-874.

Humberstone, Lloyd, The Connectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011

Jennings, R. E. "The meanings of connectives." Davis & Gillon (2004).

Johnson, Barbara. The critical difference: Essays in the contemporary rhetoric of reading. JHU Press, 1985.

Joyce, James. Ulysses. (1922):

Kahane, Howard, and Nancy Cavender. Logic and contemporary rhetoric: The use of reason in everyday life. CengageBrain.com, 2006.

Kames, Lord. Elements of Criticism (1762).

Katz, E. Walker and Sandor B. Brent. "Understanding con-nectives." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 7.2 (1968): 501-509.

Kidd, Evan, and Edith L. Bavin. "English-speaking children's comprehension of relative clauses: Evidence for general-cognitive and language-specific constraints on development." Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 31.6 (2002): 599-617.

Kiniry, Malcolm, and Ellen Strenski. "Sequencing expository writing: A recursive approach." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (1985): 191-202.

Lenker, Ursula, and Anneli Meurman-Solin, eds. Connectives in the History of English: Selected Papers from 13th ICEHL, Vienna, 23-28 August 2004).. Vol. 283. John Benjamins Publishing, 2007.

Lucas, F. L., Style. Cassell, 1955.

Lust, Barbara, Yu-Chin Chien, and Suzanne Flynn. "What children know: Methods for the study of first language acquisition." Studies in the acquisition of anaphora. Springer Netherlands, 1987. 271-356.

Maat, Henk Pander, and Ted Sanders. "Subjectivity in causal connectives: An empirical study of language in use." Cognitive Linguistics 12.3 (2001): 247-274.

Markels, Robin Bell. "Cohesion paradigms in paragraphs." College English 45.5 (1983): 450-464.

Maury, Pascale, and Amelie Teisserenc. "The role of connectives in science text comprehension and memory." Language and Cognitive Processes 20.3 (2005): 489-512.

MacArthur, Charles A., and Leah Lembo. "Strategy instruction in writing for adult literacy learners." Reading and Writing 22.9 (2009): 1021-1039.

Mason, Linda H., Richard M. Kubina, and Raol J. Taft. "Developing quick writing skills of middle school students with disabilities." The Journal of Special Education 44.4 (2011): 205-220.

Mellor, Anne K., English Romantic Irony. Harvard University Press, 1990.

McClure, Erica, and Esther Geva. "The development of the cohesive use of adversative conjunctions in discourse." Discourse processes 6.4 (1983): 411-432.

McCutchen, Deborah. "From novice to expert: Implications of language skills and writing-relevant knowledge for memory during the development of writing skill." Journal of Writing Research 3.1 (2011): 51-68.

Millis, Keith K., and Marcel Adam Just. "The influence of connectives on sentence comprehension." Journal of Memory and Language 33.1 (1994): 128-147.

Miltsakaki, Eleni, et al. "Annotating discourse connectives and their arguments." Proceedings of the HLT/NAACL Workshop on Frontiers in Corpus Annotation. 2004.



Morris, Bradley J. "Logically speaking: Evidence for item-based acquisition of the connectives AND & OR." Journal of Cognition and Development 9.1 (2008): 67-88.

Müller, Ulrich, Bryan Sokol, and Willis F. Overton. "Developmental sequences in class reasoning and propositional reasoning." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 74.2 (1999): 69-106.

Murray, John D. "Logical connectives and local coherence." Sources of coherence in reading (1995): 107-125.

Murray, John D. "Connectives and narrative text: The role of continuity." Memory & Cognition 25.2 (1997): 227-236.

Myers, Jerome L., Makiko Shinjo, and Susan A. Duffy. "Degree of causal relatedness and memory." Journal of Memory and Language 26.4 (1987): 453-465.

Neimark, Edith D., and Nan S. Slotnick. "Development of the understanding of logical connectives." Journal of Educational Psychology 61.6p1 (1970): 451.

Neuwirth, Sharyn E. "A look at intersentence grammar." The Reading Teacher 30.1 (1976): 28-32.

Nippold, Marilyn A., Ilsa E. Schwarz, and Robin A. Undlin. "Use and understanding of adverbial conjuncts: a developmental study of adolescents and young adults." Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 35.1 (1992): 108.

Paribakht, T. Sima, and Marjorie Bingham Wesche. "Reading comprehension and second language development in a comprehension-based ESL program." TESL Canada journal 11.1 (1993): 09-29.

Paris, Scott G. "Comprehension of language connectives and propositional logical relationships." Journal of experimental child psychology 16.2 (1973): 278-291.

Perelman, Chaim, and Carroll C. Arnold. The realm of rhetoric. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982.

 Peterson, Carole, and Allyssa McCabe. "Linking children’s connective use and narrative macrostructure." Developing narrative structure (1991): 29-53.

Peterson, Carole and A. McCabe. "A naturalistic study of the production of causal connectives by children." Journal of Child Language 12 (1985): 145-159.

Peterson, Carole, and Allyssa McCabe. "The connective ‘and’: Do older children use it less as they learn other connectives." Journal of Child Language 14.02 (1987): 375-381.

Peterson, Carole, and Allyssa McCabe. "The connective and as discourse glue." First Language 8.22 (1988): 19-28.

Platts, Mark de Bretton. Ways of meaning: An introduction to a philosophy of language. MIT Press, 1997.

Pope, Alexander. Essay on Criticism. 1711.

Posner, Roland. "Semantics and pragmatics of sentence connectives in natural language." Speech act theory and pragmatics. Springer Netherlands, 1980. 169-203.

Raban, Bridie. "Speaking and writing: Young children's use of connectives." Child Language Teaching and Therapy 4.1 (1988): 13-25.

Rickards, Debbie, and Shirl Hawes. "Connecting reading and writing through author's craft." The Reading Teacher 60.4 (2006): 370-373.

Robertson, Jean E. "Pupil understanding of connectives in reading." Reading Research Quarterly (1968): 387-417.

Sams, Lynn. "How to teach grammar, analytical thinking, and writing: A method that works." The English Journal 92.3 (2003): 57-65.

Sanders, Ted. "Coherence, causality and cognitive complexity in discourse." Proceedings/Actes SEM-05, First International Symposium on the exploration and modelling of meaning. 2005.

Silva, Marilyn N. "Perception and the choice of language in oral narrative: the case of the co-temporal connectives." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Vol. 7. 2011.

Sinatra, Richard, et al. "Combining visual literacy, text understanding, and writing for culturally diverse students." Journal of Reading 33.8 (1990): 612-617.

Sinatra, Richard C. "Teaching learners to think, read, and write more effectively in content subjects." The Clearing House 73.5 (2000): 266-273.

Snow, Catherine E., and Paola Uccelli. "The challenge of academic language." The Cambridge handbook of literacy (2009): 112-133.

Spooren, Wilbert. "The processing of underspecified coherence relations." Discourse processes 24.1 (1997): 149-168.

Steiner, George. Grammars of creation: originating in the Gifford lectures for 1990. Yale University Press, 2002.

Stenning, Keith, and Lynn Michell. "Learning how to tell a good story: The development of content and language in children's telling of one tale." Discourse Processes 8.3 (1985): 261-279.



Sternberg, Robert J. "Developmental patterns in the encoding and combination of logical connectives." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 28.3 (1979): 469-498.

Sterne, Laurence. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. 1759-67.

Stotsky, Sandra L. "Sentence-combining as a curricular activity: its effect on written language development and reading comprehension." Research in the Teaching of English 9.1 (1975): 30-71.

Stott, Rebecca and Simon Avery, eds., Writing with Style. Pearson Education Ltd 2001.

Stott, Rebecca and Kim Landers, ‘Structures beyond the Sentence’ in Grammar and Writing, eds.,  Rebecca Stott and Peter Chapman. Pearson Education Ltd, 2001.

Sullivan, Laraine. "Development of causal connectives by children." Perceptual and Motor Skills 35.3 (1972): 1003-1010.

Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver’s Travels. 1726.

Susser, Bernard. "Process approaches in ESL/EFL writing instruction." Journal of Second Language Writing 3.1 (1994): 31-47.

Traill, H. D.,  ‘Critical Introduction. Laurence Sterne’ in English Prose. Vol. IV. Eighteenth Century, ed. Henry Craik, 1916.

Van Veen, Rosie, et al. "Parental input and connective acquisition: A growth curve analysis." First Language 29.3 (2009): 266-288.

Van Dijk, Teun A. "Pragmatic connectives." Journal of pragmatics 3.5 (1979): 447-456.

Van Eemeren, Frans H., et al. Fundamentals of argumentation theory: A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.

Wallace, David L., and John R. Hayes. "Redefining revision for freshmen." Research in the Teaching of English (1991): 54-66.

Wilkins, John. An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language. 1668.
 
Wilkinson, Andrew. The Foundations of Language; Talking and Reading to Young Children. Oxford University Press, 1971.