Showing posts with label drama. Show all posts
Showing posts with label drama. Show all posts

Saturday, 28 May 2016

The Encyclopedia of the Gothic - Review

“Infinity made imaginable.”

A review of The Encyclopedia of the Gothic (2016), edited by William Hughes, David Punter and Andrew Smith. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-119-06460-2. (880 pages).

     The general editors (William Hughes, David Punter and Andrew Smith) begin their Introduction to The Encyclopedia of the Gothic by employing the now well-known story of the Chinese encyclopedia, popularized by Jorge Luis Borges and by Michel Foucault in The Order of Things (1970). Although they choose to employ the definite article in their chosen title, their enlightened emphasis on ‘provisionality’ hints at the struggle with the ‘epistemologically firm structure of an encyclopedia’ (p. xxxiv). Indeed, the evidence of diversity and the proliferation of resources [FN1] on gothic appears to challenge the possibility of constructing an encyclopedia in fixed media. Fortunately, the online version will provide an opportunity to interact with the suggestions of readers in order to cope with ‘an ever evolving genre’ (p. xxxviii). Nonetheless, the print version marks an excellent opportunity to take stock of the current state of play in gothic studies and to critically survey this gargantuan domain of academic research.

     In one sense, it might be proposed that academic canonicity originates in the authority and the legitimacy of scholars recruited to the project. In addition to the esteemed general editors the reviewer counted some 40 professors amongst the 131 contributors writing on 244 topics. It is also reassuring for the health of the subject that many early career scholars have joined forces with the influential writers who have been transforming the theoretical directions of Gothic studies since the 1980s.

     In short, it’s a highly impressive and monumental effort of collaborative scholarship. I do not envy the task of the editors who must bear the burden of their judiciousness: what to include, what to exclude. Digging deeper reveals that there are underlying narratives and a sense of shared assumptions about the Gothic project and approaches to reflecting on the diverse phenomena conceptually and theoretically.  Given that the gothic genre is not confined to a canon of literary texts the critical project is all the more arduous and the monster of possibility spreads out in all directions. Gothic has become a global project, national and transnational in its replication and migration. As if nodding to the academic industry that has fuelled the dissemination of gothic the editors kindly offer an entry at the centre of their encyclopedia around which all other entries circulate: the International Gothic Association (IGA), whose inaugural conference was held at the University of East Anglia in 1991. Incidentally, two of the general editors, Andrew Smith and William Hughes, are co-presidents of the International Gothic Association, and the latter is also the founding editor of Gothic Studies, the refereed journal of the International Gothic Association.

     It is rather impertinent to question whether a book of this kind is really needed when so much is already available elsewhere, and more material than ever is available on open access. Indeed, the IGA website ( is a useful place to start. Google Scholar throws up 442,000 references to ‘gothic’ so it’s undoubtedly very helpful to have some guidance to refine the search terms. Certainly this volume compares well with a range of other histories, guides, and companions that have been designed to cater for the undergraduate market. It’s obviously also a safe place to start for students who want to research a specific topic, or to improve their awareness of key themes, concepts, and theoretical approaches. The editors have managed to meet the need for accessibility without falling into the trap of a gross over-simplification of complex ideas. Entries range in length from a thousand words, up to five thousand for ‘period’ surveys. The general policy of the editors has been to offer a survey of the gothic field that covers ‘periods, places, people and media.’ (p. xxxvii) Short bibliographies accompany each entry, together with cross-references. A well-constructed traditional index also helped this reviewer to track down more minor topics that I had deemed to have been missed out.

     Comparison with the much demonised Wikipedia reveals the value of having an erudite collection of short articles that serve as a trusted introduction to key topics in the field of Gothic studies. In terms of geography there are well-informed entries on the regional, national, or wider traditions: African American Gothic (Carol Margaret Davison), American Gothic (Charles L. Crow), Anglo-Caribbean Gothic (Carol Margaret Davison), Asian Gothic (Katarzyna Ancuta), Australian Gothic (Ken Gelder), Canadian Gothic (Faye Hammill), Dutch Gothic (Agnes Andeweg), European Gothic (Francesca Billiani), French Gothic (Terry Hale), Japanese Gothic (Katarzyna Ancuta), Jewish Gothic (Ruth Gilbert), New England Gothic (Faye Ringel), New Zealand Gothic (Timothy Jones), Russian Gothic (Neil Cornwell), Scandinavian Gothic (Yvonne Leffler), Scottish Gothic (Carol Margaret Davison), Southern [US] Gothic (Meredith Miller), and Welsh Gothic (Jane Aaron); but curiously British Gothic and English Gothic are omitted as self-standing entries. One assumes that these categories were sufficiently represented elsewhere, like a background noise that is unnoticed, or a torture to which we have so long submitted that we no longer feel the pain of its presence. (I note that Wikipedia has an entries on ‘Tasmanian Gothic’ and ‘Southern Ontario Gothic’; whereas the Encyclopedia offers ‘Fin-de- siècle Gothic’ (Emily Alder) Wikipedia supplements with an entry on ‘Mal du siècle’.)

     The notion of transnationalism and the migration of Gothic tropes and narratives is evidently becoming more urgent as a focus for international scholarship and collaboration. In this regard David Punter’s entry on ‘Theory’ notes: ‘it involves the constant contact, now prevalent more than ever before because of the globalized spread of cultural interchange, between Western textualities and “indigeneous” folktales and related material.’ (692) Undoubtedly the traffic is multi-dimensional and therefore the encyclopedic projects of a Western intelligentsia and the habits of cultural consumers need to be constantly alerted to the notion of the key role of ‘provisionality’ and ‘interaction’ previously noted.

     Psychoanalytic and other theoretical approaches to Gothic are well served in this volume, perhaps revealing the interest of the general editors and the academic readership that the book targets. Taking a lead from Dale Townshend’s The orders of Gothic: Foucault, Lacan and the subject of Gothic writing, 1764-1806 (2007) David Punter’s entry on ‘Theory’ notes that theory ‘does not have to bifurcate into, on the one hand, purely historical study and, on the other, an attempt to demonstrate “universal” aspects.’ (692)

     Many entries bear the bite marks of the kiss of theory and most are commendable for their clarity and accessibility; examples include:  Abjection (Elisabeth Bronfen); Blood (William Hughes); Commodity Gothicism (Tricia Lootens); Criticism (William Hughes); Cryptonymy (Cynthia Sugars); Doubles (Dale Townshend); Environment (Gregg Garrard); Female Gothic (Diana Wallace); the Grotesque (Maria Parrino); Liminality (Katie Garner); Monstrosity (Jerold E. Hogle); Phobia (Anthony Mandal); Poststructuralism and Gothic(Julian Wolfreys); Psychoanalysis (Roger Luckhurst); Queer Gothic (Max Fincher); Sex (Ruth Anolik); Spectrality (Julian Wolfreys); the Sublime (Max Fincher); the Uncanny (Anneleen Masschelein) and Zombies (Fred Botting). All entries pay lip service to a theoretical approach but it would not be kind to assert, or to give the impression, that a theory-driven agenda dominates and overwhelms other kinds of critical appreciation and historical enquiry. In this case, the gothic church is highly accommodating and tolerant.

     Curiously, the entry on Future Gothic (Nema Montezero) appears without any References or Further Reading. Is that the Shape of Things to Come? Media topics are represented by entries on popular TV, Film (Stephen Carver), Games (Tanya Krzywinska); Radio (Richard  J. Hand), and many more. The longest entries (up to five thousand words) in The Encyclopedia of the Gothic tend to be devoted to the surveys of periods and movements. These entries provide a convenient route for students who are embarking on the study of the gothic for the first time and who need a judicious summary rather than an awesome monograph. Given the high cost of downloading academic articles, it is evident that a modest investment in a resource such as The Encyclopedia of the Gothic clearly represents excellent value for undergraduates, independent scholars and general readers. The theoretical approaches will also prove an essential resource for those seeking to engage with current academic research on the gothic.

Ian McCormick, M.A.(St Andrews), PhD (Leeds).

FN1: 'Nobody ever complains of having too little to read, as Richard Fisher, the managing director of Cambridge University Press’s academic division, has put it at many conferences.' See Martin Paul Eve, Open Access and the Humanities: Contexts, Controversies and the Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

  • Abjection
  • Abyss
  • Adultery
  • African American Gothic
  • Aickman, Robert
  • Ainsworth, William Harrison
  • Alcohol
  • American Gothic
  • Amityville
  • Angel
  • Anglo-Caribbean Gothic
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Apparition
  • Architecture, Gothic
  • Asylums
  • Atwood, Margaret
  • Australian Gothic
  • Avatar

  • Barker, Clive
  • Baudelaire, Charles
  • Beckford, William
  • Benson, E. F.
  • Bierce, Ambrose
  • Blackwood, Algernon
  • Blood
  • Bluebooks
  • Braddon, Mary Elizabeth
  • Brite, Poppy Z.
  • Brown, Charles Brockden
  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer
  • Bulwer-Lytton, Edward
  • Burger, Gottfried
  • Burton, Tim
  • Byron, George Gordon, sixth Baron

  • Cabell, James B.
  • Campbell, Ramsey
  • Campus Gothic
  • Canadian Gothic
  • Carter, Angela
  • Coleridge, Samuel Taylor
  • Collins, Wilkie
  • Colonial Gothic
  • Comic Gothic
  • Comics and graphic novels
  • Commodity Gothic
  • Confession
  • Coover, Robert
  • Corelli, Marie
  • Counterfeit
  • Crime
  • Criticism
  • Cronenberg, David
  • Crowley, Aleister
  • Cryptonymy
  • Cult Fiction
  • Cults, Gothic
  • Curse

  • Dacre, Charlotte
  • Davis, M. E. M.
  • De Quincey, Thomas
  • de Sade, Marquis
  • Degeneration
  • Dickens, Charles
  • Disability
  • Domestic Gothic
  • Dostoevsky, Fyodor
  • Doubles
  • Drama
  • Dream
  • Drugs
  • du Maurier, Daphne
  • Dutch Gothic

  • Editorship
  • Ellis, Bret Easton
  • Environment
  • European Gothic

  • Family
  • Fate
  • Faulkner, William
  • Female Gothic
  • Film, Gothic
  • Folklore and Gothic
  • Freeman, Mary Wilkins
  • French Gothic
  • French Gothic Film
  • Friday the 13th
  • Future Gothic

  • Games
  • German Expressionism
  • German Gothic
  • Ghost Stories
  • Gilman, Charlotte Perkins
  • Godwin, William
  • Goth
  • Gothic 1900 to 1950
  • Gothic 1950 to the Present
  • Gothic Revival Architecture
  • Graveyard Poetry
  • Grotesque, The

  • Halloween
  • Hammer
  • Hawthorne, Nathaniel
  • Herbert, James
  • Hill, Susan
  • Hoffmann, E. T. A.
  • Hogg, James
  • Hope-Hodgson, William
  • Horrid
  • Horror Fiction
  • Hypnotism

  • Imperial Gothic
  • Incest
  • Inheritance
  • Inquisition
  • International Gothic Association, The
  • Intertext
  • Ireland, William Henry
  • Irish Gothic

  • Jackson, Shirley
  • James, Henry
  • James, M.R.
  • Japanese Gothic
  • Jewish Gothic

  • Kafka, Franz
  • King, Stephen
  • Kipling, Rudyard

  • Lathom, Francis
  • Law and the Gothic
  • LeFanu, Sheridan
  • Lemoine, Ann
  • Lesbian Gothic
  • Lewis, Matthew
  • Liminality
  • Lovecraft, H. P.
  • Lugosi, Bela

  • Macabre, The
  • MacDonald, George
  • Machen, Arthur
  • Magazines
  • Manga
  • Marsh, Richard
  • Masks, Veils and Disguises
  • Matheson, Richard
  • Maturin, Charles 
  • McCabe, Patrick
  • McCarthy, Cormac
  • McGrath, Patrick
  • Mediumship
  • Melodrama
  • Melville, Herman
  • Misogyny
  • Modernism
  • Monster Movies
  • Monstrosity
  • Mummy
  • Music

  • Necromancy
  • New England Gothic
  • New Zealand Gothic
  • Nightmare on Elm Street
  • Nordier, Charles

  • O’Connor, Flannery
  • Oates, Joyce Carol
  • Occultism
  • Odoevsky
  • Opera

  • Penny Dreadfuls
  • Phobia
  • Poe, Edgar Allan
  • Poison
  • Polidori, John
  • Popular Culture
  • Portraiture
  • Postcolonial Gothic
  • Postmodern Gothic
  • Poststructuralism and the Gothic
  • Protestantism
  • Psychical investigation
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Psychological Thrillers

  • Queer Gothic

  • Race
  • Radcliffe, Ann
  • Radio
  • Reeve, Clara
  • Reynolds, George
  • Rice, Anne
  • Rohmer, Sax
  • Roman Catholicism
  • Romanticism
  • Rosicrucianism
  • Ruins
  • Russian Gothic

  • Scandinavian Gothic
  • Schiller, Friedrich
  • Science and the Gothic
  • Scottish Gothic
  • Secret Histories
  • Secret societies
  • Sensation Fiction
  • Sensibility
  • Sex
  • Shelley, Mary
  • Shelley, Percy Bysshe
  • Shilling Shocker
  • Sinclair, May
  • Slasher movies
  • Slavery
  • Southern Gothic
  • Spectacle
  • Spectrality
  • Spiritualism
  • Stevenson, Robert Louis
  • Stoker, Bram
  • Straub, Peter
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Sublime, The
  • Suburban Gothic
  • Supernatural, The

  • Taboo
  • Tales of Terror
  • Teaching Gothic
  • Technologies
  • Teenage Gothic
  • Tegg, Thomas
  • Television
  • Terror
  • Theory and Gothic
  • Thompson, Alice
  • Translation
  • Twilight

  • Uncanny, The
  • Urban Gothic

  • Vampire fiction
  • Victorian Gothic
  • Village Gothic
  • Voodooism

  • Walpole, Horace
  • Wells, H. G.
  • Welsh Gothic
  • Werewolf
  • Wharton, Edith
  • Wheatley, Dennis
  • Wilkinson, Sarah
  • Williams, Tennessee
  • Witchcraft
  • Wordsworth, William

  • Zombies


Aaron, Jane University of Glamorgan UK
Alder, Emily Edinburgh Napier University UK
Ancuta, Katarzyna Assumption University of Thailand Thailand
Anderweg, Agnes Maastricht University Netherlands
Anolik, Ruth Villanova University USA
Armitt, Lucie University of Salford UK
Bak, John S. Nancy Université France
Balmain, Colette
Barlett, Mackenzie

Bennett, Mark
Berthin, Christine Universite Paris Quest France
Billiani, Francesca University of Manchester UK
Billingham, Peter
Blake, Linnie Manchester Metropolitan University UK
Botting, Fred University of Lancaster UK
Bronfen, Elisabeth Englisches Seminar Switzerland
Byron, Glennis University of Stirling UK
Campbell, James University of Stirling UK
Carver, Stephen Norwich School of Art and Design UK
Carver, Stephan University of East Anglia UK
Chaplin, Susan Leeds Metropolitan University UK
Chromik, Anna Institute of English Cultures and Literatures
Collins, Richard Louisianna State University USA
Cologne-Brookes, Bath Spa University UK
Conrich, Ian Birkbeck College, University of London UK
Cooper, Andrew Georgia Institute of Technology USA
Crow, Charles
Curl, James Stevens
Daly, Nick University College Dublin ROI
Davison, Carol Margaret University of Windsor Canada
Edwards, Justin University of Surrey UK
Fincher, Max
Fischer, Benjamin Franklin
Foley, Matt Stirling University UK
Franklin, Caroline Swansea University UK
Freeman, Nick Loughborough University UK
Garrard, Greg Bath Spa University UK
Gelder, Ken University of Melbourne Australia
Germana, Monica University of Westminster UK
Gibson, Matthew
Gilbert, Ruth
Hale, Terry Hull University UK
Hammill, Faye University of Strathclyde UK
Hand, Richard J. University of Glamorgan UK
Hartnell-Mottram, Elaine Liverpool Hope University UK
Heholt, Ruth Falmouth University UK
Hoeveler, Diane Long Marquette University USA
Hogle, Jerrold University of Arizona USA
Hollington, Mike

Horner, Avril  Kingston University UK
Huang, Chiung-ying Bristol University UK
Hughes, William Bath Spa University UK
Inouye, Charles Tufts University USA
Jones, Tim Victoria University fo Wellington New Zealand
Joshi, S T

Kahan, Jeffrey
Killeen, Jarlath Trinity College Dublin ROI
Krzywinska, Tanya Brunel University UK
Leffler, Yvonne University of Gothenburg Sweden
Lippert, Conny University of Bristol UK
Lloyd, Rebecca Falmouth University UK
Lootens, Tricia University of Georgia USA
Luckhurst, Roger Birkbeck College, University of London UK
Mandal, Anthony Cardiff University UK
Mason, Diane
Masschelein, Anneleen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium
McClure, Nancy
McDowell, Stacey University of Bristol UK
McEvoy, Emma University of Westminster UK
McWilliams, Ellen Bath Spa University UK
Menegaldo, Gilles University of Poitiers France
Meyers, Helene Southwestern University USA
Michasiw, Kim York University Canada
Milbank, Alison Nottingham University UK
Miles, Robert University of Victoria Canada
Miller, Meredith Falmouth University UK
Monk, Nicholas University of Warwick UK
Mousoutzanis, Aris
Mulvey, Roberts University of the West of England UK
Munford, Becky Cardiff University UK
Murname, Barry Martin-Luther  University UK
Ni Chonaill, Siobhan University of Cambridge UK
Nordius, Janina University of Gothenburg Sweden
O'Gorman, Farrell De Paul University USA
O'Keefe, Ciaran

Owen, Tomos Cardiff University UK
Packham, Jimmy University of Bristol UK
Palmer, Paulina
Parrinder, Patrick University of Reading UK
Parrino, Maria Bristol University UK
Peach, Linden Edge Hill University UK
Pittard, Christopher Newcastle University UK
Pittock, Murray University of Glasgow UK
Potter, Franz National University USA
Powell, Anna Manchester Metropolitan University UK
Punter, David University of Bristol UK
Purinton, Marjean Texas Tech University USA
Purves, Maria Lucy Cavendish College UK
Raghunath, Anita Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands
Redford, Catherine University of Bristol UK
Ringel, Faye U.S. Coast Guard Academy USA
Roberts, Marie Mulvey University of the West of England UK
Round, Julia Bournemouth University UK
Royle, Nicholas
Ruddell, Caroline St Mary's University College UK
Sage, Vic University of East Anglia UK
Sausman, Justin Birkbeck College, University of London UK
Scahill, Andrew University of Texas at Austin USA
Scullion, Val
Smith, Andrew University of Glamorgan UK
Smith, Andy W. University of Wales, Newport UK
Spooner, Catherine Lancaster University UK
Stelle, Ginger University of St Andrews UK
Stephanou, Aspasia University of Stirling UK
Stoddard Holmes, Martha California State University USA
Sugars, Cynthia University of Ottawa Canada
Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence Universite de Toulouse II France
Thomas, Ardel City College of San Francisco USA
Thompson, Douglass H. Georgia Southern University USA
Townshend, Dale University of Stirling UK
Voller, Jack Southern Illinois University USA
Wallace, Diana University of Glamorgan UK
Warwick, Alex University of Westminster UK
Watson, Rory University of Sterling UK
Weinstock, Jeffrey Central Michigan University USA
Whatley, John Simon Fraser University Canada
Wheatley, Helen University of Warwick UK
Williams, Anne
Willis, Martin University of Glamorgan UK
Wisker, Gina University of Brighton UK
Witchard, Anne University of WestminsterUK UK
Wolfreys, Julian Loughborough University UK
Worrall, David Nottingham Trent University UK
Wright, Angela University of Sheffield UK
Wright, Elizabeth Bath Spa University UK
Wright, Angela University of Sheffield UK
Zapp, Andrea Manchester Metropolitan University UK
Zlosnik, Sue Manchester Metropolitan UK

Saturday, 9 August 2014

English Stage: From the Restoration in 1660 to 1832

Drury Lane Theatre

Researchers will find this nineteenth century reference work useful:
John Genest, Some Account of the English Stage: From the Restoration in 1660 to 1830.
Published in 1832. 10 volumes

Individual volumes can be quite difficult to track down. Here are the links to the free Google-scanned copies.


Map - Covent Garden

A sample of the index/contents is shown below.

T. R. for Theatre Royal.
L. I. F. for Lincoln's Inn Fields.
D. G for Dorset Garden.
Hay. for Haymarket.
G. F. for Goodman's Fields.
D. L. C for Drury Lane Company.
C. G. C. for Covent Garden Company.


This index appears at the beginning of Volume 1.


Abdalla—see rol. 10 p. 225.
Abdicated Prince—see vol. 1 p. 468.
Abdication of Ferdinand—see vol. 10 p. 229.
Abdelazer—D. G. 1677.
Abington Mrs her characters—C. G. 1798-1799.
Abon Hassan—D. L. April 4 1825.
Abradates and Panthea—see vol. 10 p. 229.
Abra Mule—L. I. F. Jan 1704—D. L. Jan 26 1710—L. I. F.
March 18 1721—C. G. Feb. 15 1735—C. G.March 8 1744.
Abroad and at Home—C. G. Nov. 19 1796—D. L. May 28
Absent Apothecary—D. L. Feb. 10 1813.
Absent Man by Bickerstaffe—D. L. March 21 1768—D. L.
March 29 1784—C. G. March 24 1795.
Absent Man by Hull—C.G. April 28 1764.
Abndah, or the Talisman of Oromanes—D. L. April 13 1819.
Accomplished Maid—C G. Dec. 3 1766.
Accusation, or the Family of D'Anglade—D.L. Feb. 1 1816.
Achille, by Boyer—T. R. 1699
Theatre Royal Haymarket

All the World's a Stage—D. L. April 7 1777—C. G. May 17 1782— D. L. May 31 1819—C G- Oct. 30 1820—D. L. May 22 182^-Hay. Oct. 13 1823.
Almena-D. L. Nov. 2 1764.
Almeyda, Queen of Granada—D. L. April 20 1796.
Almida—D. L. Jan. 12 1771.
Almyna— Hay. Dec. 16 1706.
Alonzo—D.L. Feb. 27 1773.
Alonzo and Imogine—C G. June 10 1801.
Alphonso, King of Naples—T. R. 1691.
Alphonsus, Emperour of Germany—see vol. 9 p. 538.
Alsop Mrs.—1st app. at C. G. Oct. 18 1815.
Altamira by Victor—see vol- 5 p. 539.
Altemira by Lord Orrery—L. I. P. 1702.
Alzira — L. I. F. June 18 1736— D. L. April 30 1744—C. G. March 18 1755—and C. G. Jan. 11 1758.
Alauma—C. G. Feb. 23 1773.
Amana—see vol. 10 p. 181.

Amasis, King of ..Egypt—C. G. August 22 1738.
Amateur of Fashion—Bath Feb. 9 1810—D. L. April 10 1813—C. G. Feb. 25 1813—Bath May 28 1814 — Bath Dec. 211816.
Amateurs and Actors—C. G. Oct. 28 1826.
Ambition—Hay. Sept. 13 1830.
Ambitious Statesman—T. R. 1679.
Ambitious Stepmother — L. I. F. 1700 — D. L. Jan. 25 1722 —D. L. Feb. 11759.
Amboyna—T. R. 1673.
Amelia, altered from Summer's Tale — C. G. April 12 1768 —D. L. Dec 14 1771.
Amelia by Carey—see vol. 10 p. 258. , .'
Amends for Ladies—see vol. 10 p. 22. "" «* '
Americans by D. L. C. April 27 1811. ' . '
American Indian—see vol. 10 p. 203.
Amintas—C. G. Dec. 15 1769.
Amoroso, King of Little J Britain—D. L. April 21 1818.
Amorous Bigot—T. R. 1690.
Amorous Miser—see D. L. Jan. 18 1705.
Amorous Orontus—see vol. 10 p. 140.
Amorous Prince—L. I. F. 1671.
Amorous War—see vol. 10 p. 71.
Amorous Widow—L. I. F. 1670—Hay. Nov. 19 1709— L. I. F. Oct. 23 1724—C. G. Jan. 1752—C. G. March 11 1758.
Amours of Billingsgate—D. L. June 11 1731.
Amphitryon—T. R. 1690—D. L. Sep. 18 1708 — D. L. Sep. 12 1734—D. L. Dec. 15 1756 —D. L. Nov. 23 1769 — C. G.March 20 1773—D. L. May 17 1781— revived at D. L. in 2 acts, Nov. 18 1826.
Amyntas by Randolph—see vol. 2 p. 293.
Anaconda, the Serpent of Ceylon—Bath May 8 1826.
Anatomist—L. I. F. 1697—revived as Farce D. L. Nov. 18 1743 — D. L. April 15 1771—C. G. Dec. 21 1786—D. L. Feb. 4 1791—D.L.Dec. 19 1801.
Andre—see vol. 10 p. 212.
Andromache—D. G. 1675.
Andromana—see vol. 11 of Dodsley 1744.
Andronicus Oommenius—see vol. 10 p. 138.
Animal Magnetism—C. G. May 26 1708—Hay. July 22 1806—C. G. March 16 1819—Hay. Oct. 2 1824 — C. G. Nov. 241824.
Anna—D. L. C. Feb. 25 1793.
Annette and Lubin—C. G. Oct. 2 1778-C. G. May 9 1786.
Anniversary (Sequel to Lethe)— C. G. March 29 1758.
Antigone by May—see vol. 10 p. 50.
Antiochus by Mottley—L. I. F. April 13 1721.
Antiochus by Mrs. Wiseman—L. I. F. 1702.
Antipodes—see vol. 10 p. 39.
Antiquary—see vol. 7 of Dodsley 1744.
Antiquary—C. G. Jan 25 1820.
Antiquity—see vol. 10 p. 228.

Antonio and Mellida-see vol. 2 of Old Plays 1814-1815.
Antonio, or Soldier's Return—D. L. Dec. 13 1800.
 Antony and Cleopatra by Sedley—D. G. 1677.
Antony and Cleopatra by Shakspeare—D. L. Jan. 3 1759.
Antony and Cleopatra altered from Shakspeare and Dryden —

C. G. Nov. 15 1813.
Antony and Cleopatra by Brooke—see his works 1778.
Anything New—Hath Nov. 12 1812.
Apollo and Daphne-C. G. Nov. 9 1748.
Apostate-C. G. May 3 1817.
Apparition, a musical Romance—Hay. Sep. 3 1794.
Apparition, or Sham Wedding—D. L. Nov. 25 1713.
Baddeley Mrs.—see end of D. L. 1780-1781.
Baddeley's characters—D. L. 1794-1795.
Baker-Bath Feb. 28 and April 10 1820.
Ball—see vol. 9 p. 553.
Banditti—T. R. 1686.
Banishment of Cicero—see Cumberland 1812-1813.
Banished Duke—see vol. 1 p. 468.
Bank Note—C. G. May 1 1795.
Bankrupt-Hay. July 21 1773.
Bannian Day—Hay. June 11 1796.
Bannister Sen.—see Hay. Oct. 16 1804.
Bannister Jun—his characters—D. L. 1814-1815.
Bantry Bay—C. G. Feb. 20 1797.
Barataria—C. G- March 29 1785—Hay. Aug. 31 1818.
u Barbarossa—D. L. Dec. 17 1754 — C. G- Nov. 1 1770—C. G.
Feb. 2 1779— C. G. Dec 13 1784^C. G. Jan. 4 1798—
C. G. Dec. 1 1804 — D. L. Dec. 15 1804 — D. L. May 26
1817—D. L. Dec. 26 1826-
Barber Baron—Hay. Sep. 8 1828.
Barber of Seville—C G. Oct. 13 1818.
Barmecide—D. L. Nov. 3 1818.
Barnaby Brittle—C. G. April 18 1781—Hay. June 23 1889-
Baron Kink—Hay. July 9 1781.
Barons of Elbenbergh—see vol. 10 p. 228-
Barresford Mrs.—her characters—Hay. 1789.
Barry Mrs. Elizabeth—her characters—Hay. 1709-1710.
Barry Mrs. Ann—see Mrs. Crawford.
Barry and Mrs. Dancer acted at the Opera House Hay. in the
summer of 1766.
Barry's characters—C- G. 1776-1777.
Barsanti Miss—her characters—Hay. 1777.
Bartley Mrs.—made her 1st app. at C. G. Oct. 2 1805—as Miss
Bartholemew Fair — see T. R. 1682«-Hay. Aug. 12 1707 —
D. L. June 28 1715— DL. Oct. 30 1731.
Bartholemew and other Fairs—see vol. 10 p. 158-
Bashaw and Bear—Bath Jan. 25 1822.
Bashful Lover-see C. G. May 30 1798.
Basil—*ee Miss Baillie 1811-1812.
Basket Maker—Hay. Sep. 4 1790.

Betterton—his famous bt. at D. L. April 7 1709—bis characters Hay. 1709-1710.
Betterton Mrs her characters T. R. 1694.
Betty, or the Country Bumpkins—D. L. Dec. 2 and 6 1732.
Betty Master—his 1st app. as a boy at C. 6. Dec. 1 1804—his 1st app. as a man at Bath Feb. 15 1812—C. G. Nov. 3 1812—C. G. June 12 1813—C. G. June 6 1815—Bath March 28 1815—Bath Dec. 6 1822.
BickerstafFs Burial—D. L. March 27 1710—acted as Custom of the Country D. L. May 5 1715.
Bickerstaffs Unburied Dead—L. 1. F. Jan. 14 1743—C. G. April 27 1748.
Bicknell Mrs.—her characters D. L. 1722-1723.
Bill of Fare—Hay. June 15 1822.
Biographia Dramatica—see vol. 8 p. 327.
Bird- in a Cage—C. G. April 24 1786—for the dedication to Prynne, see vol. 9 p. 546.
Birds without Feathers—Hay. Oct. 1 1824.
Birthday, or Prince of Arragon—Hay. Aug. 12 1783.
Birthday, by Dibdin—C. G. April 8 1799—Hay. Sep. 3 1800— Hay. Sep. 5 1814—C. G. Dec. 6 1825.
Birth of Hercules—see vol. 10 p. 181.
Birth of Merlin—see vol. 10 p. 56.
Biter—L. I. F. Dec. 4 1704.
Blackamoor Washed White—D. L. Feb. 1 and 5 1776.
Blackamoor's Head—D. L. May 16 1818.
Black Beard—Bath Jan. 18 1816.
Black-eyed Susan—Bath Nov. 18 1829.
Black Prince—T. R. Oct. 19 1667.
Blacksmith of Antwerp-C. G. Feb. 7 1785— D. L. Oct. 3 1816.
Blanchard Thomas—see end of C. G. 1793-1794.
Blanchard William—his 1st app.—see C. G. October I 1800.
Bland Mrs—see D. L. July 5 1824.
Blazing Comet—see vol. 10 p. 258.
Blind Bargain—C. G. Oct. 24 180*.
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green-D. L. April 3 1741.
Blind Boy—C. G. Dec. 1 1807—D. L. June 20 1826.
Blind Girl-C. G. April 22 1801.
Blind Lady—see vol. 10 p. 135.
Bloody Banquet—see vol. 10 p. 98.
Bloody Duke—see vol. 1 p. 468.
Box-Lobby Challenge—Hay. Feb. 22 1794.
Box-Lobby Loungers—D. L. May 16 1787.
Boy of Santillane—D. L. April 16 1827.
Bracegirdle Mrs.—ber characters—Hay. 1706-1707.
Bradshaw Mrs.—her characters—D. L. 1713-1714.
Braganza—D. L. Feb. 17 1775—D. L. March 16 1782 — D. L.May 24 1785—D. L. Oct. 20 1785.
Brand Miss Hannah—D. L. C. Jan. 18 1792.
Brave Irishman—G. F. Jan. 31 1746—D. L. May 14 1770—Bath May 21 1783.
Brazen Bust—C. G. May"29 1813.
Brennoralt—T. R. March 5 1668—for the plot see vol. 10 p. 67.
Brereton—see end of D. L.'_ 1784-1785.
Bridal Ring—C. G. Oct. 16 1810.
Bride C—see end of D. L. 1705-1706.
Bride of Abydos—D. L. Feb. 5 1818.
Bride of Lammermoor—Bath March 11 1826.
Bridgewater—see C G. 1753-1754.
Brigand—D. L. Nov. 18 1829.
Britain's Glory, or Trip to Portsmouth—Hay. Aug. 20 1794.
Britain's Jubilee, acted by D. L. Company, Oct. 25 1809.
Britannia, or Royal Lovers—G. F. Feb. 11 1734.
Britannia by Mallet—D. L. May 9 1755.
British Enchanters—Hay. Feb. 21 1706—Hay. Feb. 22 1707,
with alterations.
British Fortitude, and Hibernian Friendship — C. G. April 29
1794—C. G. March 5 1799.
British Heroine—C. G. May 5 1778.
British Loyalty, or Squeeze at St. Paul's—D. L. April 30 1789.
British Sailor, or Whimsical Ladies—Bath May 9 1786.
Briton—D. L. Feb. 19 1722.
Britons Strike Home — D. L. Dec. 31 1739 — D. L. March 27
Broad but not Long—C. G. June 15 1814.
Broken Gold—D. L. Feb. 8 1806.
Broken Heart—see Ford's works—1811.
Broken Sword—C. G. Oct. 7 1816.
Brooke's Plays—see end of 1777-1778.
Brother and Sister—C. G. Feb. 1 1815—D. L. June 17 1823.
Brothers by Shirley—see vol. 9 p. 559.

Wednesday, 16 April 2014

Intro Shakespearean Tragedy

The publication of a new edition of Bradley’s Shakespearean Tragedy (1904) presents a timely opportunity to explore a classic expression of the theory and practice of tragic drama. This is also an opportunity for new readers to encounter a distinctive appreciation of Shakespeare’s work in the context of more recent literary and cultural theories. In the process, the obstacles to a clear understanding of what Bradley thought are explored, and we seek to explain why many critics were often hostile to his writings on Shakespeare. We then proceed to an interrogation of Bradley’s philosophy of tragedy in the context the wider project of the development of English Studies as an educational discipline since the end of the nineteenth century. This frame of analysis will also be informed by recent post-colonial theories which will be positioned within the context of literary study understood as a distinctive project of enlightened humane education. [...] One of the predicaments for Bradley, writing at the beginning of the twentieth century is how to accommodate a true representation of Shakespearean tragedy that responds to the ideology of the nineteenth century. He is writing in the context of the British imperial project and mass industrialisation, but ten years before the cataclysmic events of the First World War (1914-18). In this regard, the virtual absence of any historical particularities is a noteworthy silence in the text. One criticism might be that the romantic timelessness of Shakespeare seeks to naturalize a world order that is already showing signs of political if not ideological crisis. 

Wednesday, 22 May 2013

Writing about ‘represented speech’ in Shakespeare

In the exam you are typically provided with a short extract from one of Shakespeare plays. This blog provides a checklist of the key points that you will need to write about. This exercise is an opportunity to show off your understanding and your critical vocabulary, and to demonstrate your awareness of how literary and rhetorical techniques contribute to effective dramatic writing.

Finding your bearings

Keywords: conflict, drama, character, theme

Who are the main protagonists, and who are the subsidiary speakers? Which characters prompt or lead the discussion? Who dominates?

Think about

the context for the action,
the sense of conflict or rapport and dramatic situation
how the extract helps to develop a character/psychology/motivation/emotion
... or to advance a theme.

Think about what has happened before, and what will happen after the selected scene/extract

Is there an emotional high point or specific dramatic moments that have more emphasis than others? Identify precisely where these happen in the extract, and think about how they are achieved.

Are there transitions between different emotions? (Anger, Greed, Confused, Joy, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Hate, Desire, Hope, Dejection, Love, Wonder, Irritation, Pride, Disappointment, Happiness, Embarrassed, Anxiety, Jealous, Glee)

Are the speakers balanced in equal exchanges? Are they engaged in verbal combat, or witty wordplay (puns/innuendo/logical games)

Is there a power difference between speakers (age/class/gender/situation)

Check for dramatic irony in relation to characters and the audience.

Speaking Voices

Shakespeare’s plays are not a transcript of conversational speech, but they may employ colloquial elements and slang, sexual jokes, rudeness and less formal, less poetic speech rhythms. Sometimes he employs prose, or irregular verse. You should comment on these aspects of the extract.

Sounds - Beat and Rhythm

The usual pattern is iambic pentameter – a 10 syllable line, five feet, with alternating unstressed (-) and stressed (/) beats ( -  / )


Shakespeare tends to employ unrhymed verse, but sometime the final two lines of a scene are a rhyming couplet. This provides a more emphatic closure.


How does Shakespeare vary the pace? Look for shifts in rhythm and timing, and don’t just pause at the end of very line. Shakespeare’s verse is very flexible, and presents many cues for actors, as well as opportunities for variations in volume, pitch and pace.

Look out for short, transactional exchanges, and phatics (polite introductions/ salutations), interruptions, overlapping

Contrast these to more rhetorical speeches that outline and develop thoughts and feelings, often using longer more complex sentence structures.

Look for evidence of rhetorical techniques (such as repetition, tripling, parallelism, listing, pronoun shifts [ I/we/you/they/he/she/it ], contrast and antithesis)

and figurative language (simile/ metaphor/ personification/ pathetic fallacy)

Pitch and Volume

Is there a sense of rising or falling (e.g. louder/quieter)
Dramatic elements: e.g. trumpets announce a character ... or whispering ...

Compare and contrast public speeches, court and noisy crowd/street scenes to ...
smaller, more intimate gatherings (a bedroom scene), a private monologue (soliloquy), or an ‘aside’

Renaissance and Rhetoric

Because renaissance writers were trained in the classical rhetoric you will find many of the literary devices and rhetorical techniques which are frequent in formal public speeches.

This artificial formality (prepared speech) many contribute to a sense of linguistic performance and dexterity (verbal skills). Polished and eloquent speech was the sign of an educated gentleman or a courtier.

The deployment of rhetoric provides a sense of wit, intelligence and refinement, but it was also used to present deeper thoughts and feelings of the character.

Language and style should be related to issues of power, but remember that Shakespeare can be quite effective and dramatic in the way that he satirises and mocks the powerful, and the way that he gives a voice to women, the poor, and the outsider.

Shakespeare’s audience delighted in the playfulness, mobility and resourcefulness of language.

Rather than just identifying and naming a rhetorical or literary technique explain how it functions to produce emphasis, more vivid pictures or imagery, or amplifies, deepens and develops an idea. Evaluate its impact and effectiveness.

Dr Ian McCormick is the author of The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences
(Quibble Academic, 2013)