Monday, 16 February 2015

The Discourse of Literature Reviews and Critical Evaluation

A Traditional Card Catalogue


Critical evaluations and literature reviews employ an academic discourse. I've started to compose a list of the most frequently used words and phrases :

Accentuated differences
Acclaimed authors
According to
Account
Acknowledge the issue
Addresses
Addresses the contradictions
Adequate
Adopts
Advances the idea
Almost all
Analyses
Arbitrary categories
Argues
Argument
Assesses
Attempts to challenge
Bogged down
Bold
Breaks new ground
Brief discussion
Brings together
By ignoring this
Care with which
Centres on
Certain types of
Challenges
Charts
Cited
Combines analyses of
Comments on
Compelling argument
Comprehensive
Conceptual framework
Concise
Confesses
Confides
Connects
Considered
Contains
Contradictions
Contributors


Trinity Library Dublin

Conveys the sense
Convincing
Covers a range of topics
Critics
Debates about
Dense literature
Describes the trends
Detailed
Disadvantages
Disciplines
Discusses
Discrepancy
Discuss
Dispute
Disputing
Drawbacks
Embrace
Emphasis on the
Engagement with
Enjoying a renaissance
Even handed
Evokes
Exaggerated
Examines
Excellent
Explains
Exploring
Exposes
Fascinating
Features
Focus
Frequently
From that perspective
Fulcrum topics
Fully revised
Generally
Grateful
Ground-breaking
Guides
Imaginative
Impressive
In this field
Inadequate
Inaugurated the field
Incisive
Includes
Influence
Innovative
Interdisciplinary team
Interrogates
Interesting
Interface of ... and
It is believed that
It is thought that
It is a widely held view that
It has been reported that
It has commonly been assumed that
Joined by several new scholars
Judicious use of
Last word on this ... must go to
Limitations
Long quotations
Lucid
Make sense of the contradictions
Many scholars hold the view that …
Many types of
Minor errors
Most
Muddles
Multifaceted
Nearly always
New ground
Offers
Offers guidance
Often
Old ground
Opines that
Original
Occasionally
Overlooks
Overview
Paradoxically

Bodleian Library Classics

Partially answered
Perspective
Persuasive
Pertinent voice
Precision
Presents
Project is driven by
Prose
Provides an overview
Purpose
Questions
Quality of
Range of alternatives
Readers lose patience
Recent research has suggested that
Recognisable concerns
Reflecting on
Relationship between
Relevant
Relies heavily on
Revealing
Riddled with misprints
Rigid
Rooted in her knowledge of
Sadly
Scholars
Serve as a warning
Several Scholars
Short quotations
Shows how / that
Significant
Some types of
Sometimes
Speaks to
Style
Subject
Subtext
Supple
Tellingly
The majority of
There is some evidence to indicate that
This book
This comment
This concern with
This contribution to the debate
This exploration of
This issue
This study
This volume
Thorough
Through a series of case studies
Traces
Timely
To be commended
Trifling particulars
Undoubtedly the standard work on this
Uniquely
Updated edition
Use of long quotation
Useful
Uses
Valuable insights
Various disciplines
Vast range of topics
Vital to consider
Weaknesses
Wide-range of
Wide-ranging

 Dr Ian McCormick is the author of
The Art of Connection: the Social Life of Sentences and 11+ English  

Tuesday, 10 February 2015

Academic Word Puzzle



Fill in the missing letters to create common academic words:



d__t__ct__d
__ppr__c__ __t__ __n  
d__v__ __t__ __n
b__ __s
__h__rt
__l__r__ty
c__nf__rm__ty
__b__nd__n
__cc__mp__n__ __d
__ccumul__t__ __n 
__mb__gu__us
__pp__nd__x
__rb__tr__ry  
__ut__m__t__c__lly
c__mpl__m__nt
__ruc__ __l
__urr__ncy
d__n__t__    
__luctu__t__ __ns  
d__spl__c__m__nt
__r__m__t__c
c__nt__mp__r__ry
__xpl__ __t__t__ __n  
c__ntr__d__ct__ __n
__v__ntu__lly  
__xh__b__t
__u__d__l__n__s  
c__mm__d__ty

Check you answers in Sublist 8  

The Academic Word List (AWL) was developed by Averil Coxhead at the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. The list contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. The AWL was primarily made so that it could be used by teachers as part of a programme preparing learners for tertiary level study or used by students working alone to learn the words most needed to study at colleges and universities.
The 570 words are divided into 10 sublists. The sublists are ordered such that the words in the first sublist are the most frequent words and those in the last sublist are the least frequent.


List of frequently used academic words







Have you heard of corpus linguistics

Corpus linguistics proposes that reliable language analysis is more feasible with corpora (samples) collected in the field, in their natural contexts, and with minimal experimental-interference.

How did it all start?


A landmark in modern corpus linguistics was Henry Kučera and W. Nelson Francis's Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English (1967).

This work was based on the analysis of the Brown Corpus, a carefully compiled selection of about a million words, drawn from a wide variety of sources in current  American English

How did technology help?

The first computerized corpus of one million words of transcribed spoken language was constructed in 1971 by the Montreal French Project. This effort inspired Shana Poplack's much larger corpus of spoken French in the Ottawa-Hull area

The analysis of academic writing shows that there are many 

frequently used words and phrases:

a form of   

a function of   

a high degree   

a large number   

a large number of   

a list of   

a number of   

a result of   

a series of   

a set of   

a small number   

a variety of   

a wide range   

a wide range of   

according to the   

allows us to   

an attempt to   

an example of   

an increase in the   

and so on   

and the same   

and the second   

appear to be    

appears to be   

are a number of   

are able to   

are as follows   

are based on   

are likely to   

as a consequence   

as a function   

as a function of   

as a result   

as a result of   

as a result of the   

as a whole   

as an example   

as can be seen   

as opposed to   

as part of   

as part of the   

as shown in   

as well as   

associated with the   

assume that the    

assumed to be   

at least in   

at the outset   

at the same    

at the same time   

at the time of   

at this stage 

   


based on a   

based on the   

be achieved by   

be argued that   

be carried out   

be considered as   

be explained by   

be noted that    

be regarded as   

be related to the   

be seen as   

be the case   

be used as a   

be used to   

because it is   

been carried out   

been shown to   

between the two   

both of these   

but this is   

by virtue of   

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Statistics in Linguistics

Christopher Butler

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can also be   

can be achieved   

can be considered   

can be expressed   

can be found   

can be found in   

can be seen   

can be seen in   

can be used   

can be used to   

can easily be   

carried out by   

carried out in   

could be used   

degree to which   

depend on the   

depending on the   

depends on the   

difference between the   

different from the   

different types of   

does not appear   

due to the   

due to the fact   

due to the fact that   

each of the   

each of these   

even though the   

exactly the same   

example of a   

extent to which   

fact that the   

factors such as   

focus on the   

for example if   

for example in   

for example the   

for the purposes of   

for this purpose   

for this reason   

form of the   

from the point   

from the point of   

from the point of view   

function of the   

give rise to    


An enquiry into the role of satire and sense in academic life today:

The Graves of Academe

Would you recommend this book?



















has also been   

has been used   

have shown that   

have the same   

high levels of   

his or her   

if they are   

if this is   

important role in   

in a number of   

in accordance with   

in accordance with the   

in both cases   

in conjunction with   

in more detail   

in most cases   

in order to   

in other words   

in other words the   

in relation to   

in response to   

in some cases   

in such a   

in such a way   

in such a way that   

in table    

in terms of   

in terms of a   

in terms of the   

in the absence of   

in the case   

in the case of   

in the context   

in the context of   

in the course of   

in the form of   

in the next section   

in the present study   

in the same   

in the sense   

in the sense that   

in this article   

in this case   

in this case the   

in this paper   

in this paper we   

in this way   

insight into the   

is affected by   

is based on   

is based on the   

is consistent with   

is determined by   

is likely to   

is likely to be   

is more likely   

is much more   

is not possible to   

is the case   

it appears that   

it follows that   

it is clear   

it is clear that   

it is difficult   

it is important   

it is important to   

it is impossible   

it is impossible to   

it is interesting   

it is interesting to   

it is likely that   

it is necessary   

it is necessary to   

it is not possible   

it is not possible to   

it is obvious that   

it is possible   

it is possible that   

it is possible to   

it is worth   

it may be   

it should be noted   

large number of   

less likely to   

likely to be   

little or no   

means that the   

more likely to   

most likely to   

nature of the   

need not be   

needs to be    

none of these   

of the fact   

of the same   

of the second   

of the system   

of the two    

of these two   

of view of   

on the basis   

on the basis of   

on the basis of the   

on the other   

on the other hand   

on the other hand the   

on the part of   

other words the   

out that the   

over a period   

over a period of   

part of a   

part of the   

parts of the   

point of view   

point of view of   

referred to as   

related to the   

same way as   

see for example   

should also be   

should be noted   

should not be   

shown in figure   

shown in table   

similar to those   

size of the   

small number of   

so that the   

such a way   

such a way that   

such as the   

such as those   

take into account   

take into account the   

terms of the   

the ability to   

the amount of   

the area of   

the basis of   

the case of   

the change in   

the concept of   

the context of   

the definition of   

the development of   

the difference between   

the difference between the   

the distribution of   

the effect of   

the effects of   

the example of   

the existence of   

the extent to which   

the fact that   

the fact that the    

the first is   

the form of   

the frequency of   

the idea that   

the importance of   

the issue of   

the level of   

the meaning of   

the most important   

the nature of   

the nature of the   

the next section   

the notion of   

the number of   

the order of   

the other hand   

the other hand the   

the part of the   

the point of view   

the point of view of   

the presence of   

the presence of a   

the problem of   

the process of   

the purpose of this   

the question of   

the rate of   

the real world   

the reason for   

the relationship between   

the result of   

the role of   

the same as   

the same time   

the same way as   

the size of   

the size of the   

the structure of   

the study of   

the sum of   

the total number   

the use of   

the validity of the   

the value of   

the way in   

the way in which   

the way that   

the work of   

their ability to   

there are a number   

there are a number of   

there are no   

there are several   

there are three   

this means that   

this paper we   

this type of   

this would be   

to carry out   

to determine whether   

to distinguish between   

to do so   

to ensure that   

to ensure that the   

to show that   

to some extent   

to the fact that   

to use the   

total number of   

two types of   

value of the   

view of the   

was based on   

was carried out   

way in which   

ways in which   

we assume that   

we can see   

we do not   

we have seen   

what are the   

whether or not   

whether or not the   

which can be   

which is not   

which is the   

wide range of   

with regard to   

with respect to   

with respect to the   

with the same